Sunday, October 30, 2011

KAPTAI DAM

Kaptai Dam
RANGAMATI

Kaptai Dam
Kaptai Dam
Kaptai Dam The most notable dam of the country which has been constructed on the karnafuli river at Kaptai in Rangamati district, 65 km upstream of Chittagong. It is 670.56m long and 45.7m high. The width at the foundation level is 45.7m and at crest level 7.6m. The crest level is 36m above mean sea level (MSL). The quantity of total excavation was 113,400 cu m (4.05 million cubic ft). Since it is an earthen dam a 16-gated spillway (each 12.2m by 11.3m) with discharge capacity of 625,000 cusec has been constructed on the left side of the main dam. The catchment area of the reservoir is 11,000 sq km. Average annual rainfall is 2,500 mm over the catchment and average annual flow to the reservoir is 12 million ac-ft. The full reservoir level above mean sea level is 33.23m and the reservoir area and capacity at this level are 777 sq km and 5.25 million acr-ft, respectively. The dead storage at 23.16m above MSL is 1.18 million ac-ft. Flood storage capacity is 0.83 million ac-ft.

Kaptai Dam
Karnafuli Hydro Power Station
The generation of Hydroelectric power is the main purpose of the lake. Other utilities include navigation, flood control, fishery, recreation and tourism. The present generation capacity of the karnafuli hydro power station is 230 MW during peak load hours. The downstream flood peak in the Karnafuli river can be reduced by 50% by storing water in the reservoir. Usually all floodwater during May to August is stored. A cargo transfer system with overhead trolleys facilitates transfer of boats, timber logs and other commodities from the reservoir side to the downstream side in the river. The panoramic view and boating facilities of the reservoir upstream of the dam offer a good recreation area and attract many visitors.
The Karnafuli Hydro Power Station was first contemplated in 1906 and a brief reconnaissance was carried out. The study was taken up again in 1923. In 1946, EA Moore submitted a report recommending a dam site at Barkal about 65 km upstream of the present dam site at Kaptai. In 1950, Merz Rendal Vatten, Consulting Engineers, proposed a site for the construction of a dam at Chilardak, about 48 km upstream of Kaptai and in 1951 government engineers proposed a site at Chitmoram about 11 km downstream of Kaptai. Finally, in 1951 under the guidance of Khawja Azimuddin, then Chief Engineer (Irrigation), the dam site was selected at Kaptai. Preliminary work started in 1951 and the government engineers did some physical work. The US Government agreed to assist in the implementation of the project and in 1952 the International Engineering Co Inc (IECO) was engaged for a study of the project through the International Cooperation Administration of the USA. On the basis of these studies the project was taken up and IECO was appointed for the engineering services of the project. Utah International Inc was engaged as the construction contractors and started working in October 1957. 

Kaptai Dam
In 1962, the initial phase of construction was completed, comprising the dam, spillway, penstock and powerhouse with a generation capacity of 80 MW by means of two units, each with a capacity of 40 MW. The third generating unit with an installed capacity of 50 MW was completed in November 1981. The project was financed by government, ICA and DLF loan and the total cost including the dam with ancillary structures, Units 1, 2 and part of Unit 3 was Rs 503 million with a foreign exchange component of Rs 171.6 million. The government and USAID financed the remaining cost of the third unit. The total cost was Tk 274 million with a foreign exchange component of Tk 156 million. In October 1988 construction of the 4th and 5th units of the Kaptai station was completed raising the total generation capacity to 230 MW. The total cost of the extension work was Tk 1,900 million, which included a foreign exchange component of Tk 1,080 million.
Although the Kaptai dam has provided increased economic opportunities which include flood control and power generation, many local inhabitants have lost their homes and means of livelihood owing to inundation, making way for a storage reservoir. There has also been a general destruction of wilderness and open spaces, and an accompanying loss of wildlife and wildlife habitats.
@
Kaptai Dam

No comments:

Post a Comment